To be honest I don’t know that there is a specific effect on teachers. Your Union should be able to advise you about that.
The stigma of bankruptcy is much less than it was, however it is still a public court procedure advertised in your local paper, the London Gazette and the internet. It is likely your employer will find out.
In addition there is always the possibility one of your pupils will find out.
Your tax code will change. I’m not sure whether bankruptcy shows on a CRB check (I suspect it won’t unless you commit a bankruptcy offence) or how much vetting you have to undergo as a teacher.
You will not be able to act as a school governor (as this is a public office).
I imagine you have looked at the alternatives such as the IVA, DRO and DMP.